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Glossary of Ecology (6th ed.) by Krebs (2009)

  • the process by which lakes are changed from clear water lakes dominated by green algae into murky lakes dominated by blue-green algae, typically caused by nutrient runoffs from cities or agriculture.

Glossary of "Plant Biology (1st ed.)" by Graham et al. (2003)

  • The process by which clean waters are converted into polluted or eutrophic waters.

Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)

  • The addition of nutrient materials to a body of water, resulting in changes in ecological processes and species composition therein.

Glossary of "Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet (2nd ed.)" by Botkin & Keller (1998)

  • Increase in the concentration of chemical elements required for living things (for example, phosphorus). Increased nutrient loading may lead to a population explosion of photosynthetic algae and blue-green bacteria that become so thick that light cannot penetrate the water. Bacteria deprived of light beneath the surface die; as they decompose, dissolved oxygen in the lake is lowered and eventually a fish kill may result. Eutrophication of lakes caused by human-induced processes, such as nutrient-rich sewage water entering a body of water, is called cultural eutrophication.


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