Glossary of "Botany (2nd ed)" by Moore et al. (1998)
- Vascular system specialized for transporting water and dissolved minerals upward in the plant; characterized by the presence of tracheary elements.
Glossary of "Plant Biology (1st ed.)" by Graham et al. (2003)
- Specialized cells that conduct water and minerals in plant vascular systems; dead at maturity.
Glossary of "Plant Systematics (1st ed.)" by Simpson (2006)
- A tissue composed of tracheary elements plus some parenchyma and sometimes sclerenchyma, functioning in conduction of water and mineral nutrients.
Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)
- In vascular plants, the tissue that conducts water and minerals; xylem consists, in various plants, of tracheids, vessel elements, fibers and other highly specialized cells.
Glossary of "The Evolution of Plants (2nd ed.)" by Willis & McElwain (2014)
- Tissue found in vascular plants, the principal function of which is the translocation of water and solutes.
- Graham, L. E., Graham, J. M. & Wilcox, L. W. 2003. Plant Biology. -xxxv + 497 pp. Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River.
- Moore, R., Clark, W. D. & Vodopich, D. S. 1998. Botany, 2nd ed. -xxiv + 918 pp. WCB/McGraw-Hill, New York.
- Sadava, D., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C. & Berenbaum, M. R. 2011. Life: The Science of Biology, 9th ed. -xliv + 1266 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
- Simpson, M. G. 2006. Plant Systematics. -xi + 590 pp. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford.
- Willis, K. J. & McElwain, J. C. 2014. The Evolution of Plants, 2nd ed. -ix + 398 pp. Oxford University Press, Oxford.