- A group of organisms united by obtaining their energy from the same part of the food web of a biological community.
Glossary of "Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet (2nd ed.)" by Botkin & Keller (1998)
- In an ecological community, all the organisms that are the same number of food-chain steps from the primary source of energy. For example, in a grassland the green grasses are on the first trophic level, grasshoppers are on the second, birds that feed on grasshoppers are on the third, and so forth.
- Botkin, D. B. & Keller, E. A. 1998. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet, 2nd ed. -xxxxii + 649 pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
- Sadava, D., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C. & Berenbaum, M. R. 2011. Life: The Science of Biology, 9th ed. -xliv + 1266 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
広島大学 / デジタル自然史博物館 / 植物 / アルファベット順 / T | 仮名順 にもどる