Glossary of "Cladistics (2nd ed.)" by Kitching et al. (1998)
- A cladogram that requires more than the minimum number of steps to account for the data. Usually interpreted as those cladograms that are one or a few steps longer than the optimal cladogram.
- Kitching, I. J., Forey, P. L. Humphries, C. J. & Williams, D. M. 1998. Cladistics, 2nd ed.: the Theory and Practice of Parsimony Analysis. -xii + 228 pp. Oxford University Press, New York.