Glossary of Plant Systematics (1st ed.) by Simpson (2006)
- The diploid (2n) phase in the haplodiplontic life cycle of all land plants.
Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)
- In plants and protists with alternation of generations, the diploid phase that produces the spores. (Contrast with gametophyte.)
Glossary of "The Evolution of Plants (2nd ed.)" by Willis & McElwain (2014)
- Spore-producing stage of a plant in the alternation of generations.
Glossary of "A Botanist's Vocabulary" by Pell & Angell (2016)
- Life cycle generation in which a plant has two sets of chromosomes (i.e., is diploid, 2n) and produces spores; the sporophyte is dominant in both time and size for vascular plants, making it their most conspicuous generation; e.g., tree, fern. Antonym: gametophyte.
- Simpson, M. G. 2006. Plant Systematics. -xi + 590 pp. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford.
- Sadava, D., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C. & Berenbaum, M. R. 2011. Life: The Science of Biology, 9th ed. -xliv + 1266 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
- Willis, K. J. & McElwain, J. C. 2014. The Evolution of Plants, 2nd ed. -ix + 398 pp. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
- Pell, S. K. & Angell, B. 2016. A Botanist's Vocabulary: 1300 Terms Explained and Illustrated. 226 pp. Timber Press, Portland.