Glossary of "Ecology (6th ed.)" by Krebs (2009)
- all the biotic and abiotic factors that actually affect an individual organism at any point in its life cycle.
- Usually, the complex of external physical, chemical, and biotic factors that may affect a population, an organism, or the expression of an organism's genes; more generally, anything external to the object of interest (e.g., a gene, an organism, a population) that may influence its function or activity. Thus, other genes within an organism may be part of a gene's environment, or other individuals in a population may be part of an organism's environment.
- Whatever surrounds and interacts with or otherwise affects a population, organism, or cell. May be external or internal.
Glossary of "Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet (2nd ed.)" by Botkin & Keller (1998)
- All factors (living and nonliving) that actually affect an individual organism or population at any point in the life cycle Environment is also sometimes used to denote a certain set of circumstances surrounding a particular occurrence (environments of deposition, for example).
- Botkin, D. B. & Keller, E. A. 1998. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet, 2nd ed. -xxxxii + 649 pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
- Futuyma, D. J. & Kirkpatrick, M. 2017. Evolution, 4th ed. -xviii + 602 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
- Krebs, C. J. 2009. Ecology, 6th ed. -xvi + 655 pp. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco.
- Sadava, D., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C. & Berenbaum, M. R. 2011. Life: The Science of Biology, 9th ed. -xliv + 1266 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
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