Glossary of "Cladistics (2nd ed.)" by Kitching et al. (1998)
- The result of optimization of a character onto a given cladogram when one sequence of character transformation provides support for a branch, albeit only by homoplastic characters or character states, while an alternative sequence produces a zero-length branch. The result is an over-resolved cladogram.
- Kitching, I. J., Forey, P. L. Humphries, C. J. & Williams, D. M. 1998. Cladistics, 2nd ed.: the Theory and Practice of Parsimony Analysis. -xii + 228 pp. Oxford University Press, New York.