Glossary of "Ecology (6th ed.)" by Krebs (2009)
- reproduction or mortality that simply adds or subtracts the individuals to the current population; opposite of compensatory effects.
Glossary of "Evolution (4th ed.)" by Futuyma & Kirkpatrick (2017)
- The magnitude of the effect of an allele on a character, measured as half the phenotypic difference between homozygotes for that allele compared with homozygotes for a different allele.
- Krebs, C. J. 2009. Ecology, 6th ed. -xvi + 655 pp. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco.
- Futuyma, D. J. & Kirkpatrick, M. 2017. Evolution, 4th ed. -xviii + 602 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.