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== Difinition ==
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== Definition ==
=== Glossary of Evolution (2nd ed.) by [[Futuyma_2009|Futuyma (2009)]] ===
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===Glossary of "Biology (3rd ed.)" by [[Hardin_Bajema_1978|Hardin & Bajema (1978)]]===
* A process of genetic change in a population whereby, as a result of natural selection, the average state of a character becomes improved with reference to a specific function, or whereby a population is thought to have become better suited to some feature of its environment.  Also, ''an adaptation: a feature that has become prevalent in a population because of a selective advantage conveyed by that feature in the improvement in some function.
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*the fitness of an organism for its environment; it is usually measured by longevity (physiological adaptation) or by reproductive success (evolutionary adaptation); also, the process leading to the adapted condition.
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=== Glossary of "Evolutionary Biology (3rd ed.)" by [[Futuyma_1998|Futuyma (1998)]] ===
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*A process of genetic change of a population, owing to natural selection, whereby the average stage of a character becomes improved with reference to a specific function, or whereby a population is thought to have become better suited to some feature of its environment.  Also, an adaptation: a feature that has become prevalent in a population because of a selective advantage owing to its provision of an improvement in some function.  A complex concept; see Chapter 12.
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=== Glossary of "Plant Systematics (1st ed.)" by [[Simpson_2006|Simpson (2006)]] ===
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*A structure or feature that performs a particular function and which results in increased survival or reproduction.
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=== Glossary of "The Cell (5th ed.)" by [[Alberts_Johnson_Lewis_Raff_Roberts_Walter_2008|Alberts et al. (2008)]] ===
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*(1) adaptation (desensitization): Adjustment of sensitivity following repeated stimulation. The mechanism that allows a cell to react to small changes in stimuli even against a high background level of stimulation. (2) evolutionary adaptation: an evolved trait.
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=== Glossary of "Ecology (6th ed.)" by [[Krebs_2009|Krebs (2009)]] ===
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*any alteration in the structure or function of an organism by which the organism becomes better able to survive and multiply in its environment.
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=== Glossary of "Evolution (2nd ed.)" by [[Futuyma_2009|Futuyma (2009)]] ===
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*A process of genetic change in a population whereby, as a result of natural selection, the average state of a character becomes improved with reference to a specific function, or whereby a population is thought to have become better suited to some feature of its environment.  Also, ''an'' adaptation: a feature that has become prevalent in a population because of a selective advantage conveyed by that feature in the improvement in some function.
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===Glossary of "Evolution (3rd ed.)" by [[Futuyma_2013|Futuyma (2013)]]===
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*A process of genetic change in a population whereby, as a result of natural selection, the average state of a character becomes improved with reference to a specific function, or whereby a population is thought to have become better suited to some feature of its environment.  Also, ''an'' adaptation: a feature that has become prevalent in a population because of a selective advantage conveyed by that feature in the improvement in some function.  A complex concept.
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=== Glossary of "Evolution (4th ed.)" by [[Futuyma_Kirkpatrick_2017|Futuyma & Kirkpatrick (2017)]] ===
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*A process of genetic change in a population whereby, as a result of natural selection, the average state of a character becomes improved with reference to a specific function, or whereby a population is thought to have become better suited to some feature of its environment.  Also, ''an'' adaptation: a feature that has become prevalent in a population because of a selective advantage conveyed by that feature in the improvement in some function.
    
== 文献(引用) ==
 
== 文献(引用) ==
* [[Futuyma_2009|Futuyma, D. J.  2009Evolution, 2nd ed.  -xviii + 633 pp.  Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.]]
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*[[Alberts_Johnson_Lewis_Raff_Roberts_Walter_2008|Alberts, B., Johnson, A., Lewis, J. Raff, M., Roberts, K. & Walter P.  2008.  Molecular Biology of the Cell, 5th ed. -xxxiv + 1616 pp.  Garland Science, New York.]]
 
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*[[Futuyma_1998|Futuyma, D. J.  1998Evolutionary Biology, 3rd ed.  -xviii + 763 pp.  Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.]]
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*[[Futuyma_2009|Futuyma, D. J. 2009. Evolution, 2nd ed. -xviii + 633 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.]]
[[Category:研究]]
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*[[Futuyma_2013|Futuyma, D. J.  2013Evolution, 3rd ed. -xviii + 656 + 14 + 37 + 2 + 36 pp.  Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.]]
[[Category:教育]]
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*[[Futuyma_Kirkpatrick_2017|Futuyma, D. J. & Kirkpatrick, M2017Evolution, 4th ed.  -xviii + 602 pp.  Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.]]
[[Category:生物]]
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*[[Hardin_Bajema_1978|Hardin, G. & Bajema, C. 1978. Biology, its Principles and Implications, third edition. -x + 790 pp. W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco.]]
[[Category:生態]]
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*[[Krebs_2009|Krebs, C. J2009Ecology, 6th ed.  -xvi + 655 pp.  Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco.]]
[[Category:用語]]
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*[[Simpson_2006|Simpson, M. G.  2006.  Plant Systematics. -xi + 590 pp.  Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford.]]
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=== Glossary of Campbell Biology (7th ed.) by [[Campbell_Reece_2005|Campbell & Reece (2005)]] ===
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=== Glossary of Campbell Biology (8th ed.) by [[Campbell_Reece_Urry_Cain_Wasserman_Minorsky_Jackson_2008|Campbell et al. (2008)]] ===
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=== Glossary of The Cell (5th ed.) by [[Alberts_Johnson_Lewis_Raff_Roberts_Walter_2008|Alberts et al. (2008)]] ===
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== 文献(引用) ==
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* [[Alberts_Johnson_Lewis_Raff_Roberts_Walter_2008‎|Alberts, B., Johnson, A., Lewis, J. Raff, M., Roberts, K. & Walter P2008Molecular Biology of the Cell, 5th ed. -xxxiii + 1268 pp.  Garland Science, New York.]]
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* [[Campbell_Reece_2005|Campbell, N. A. & Reece, J. B2005Biology, 7th ed.  -xl + 1231 pp.  Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco.]]
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* [[Campbell_Reece_Urry_Cain_Wasserman_Minorsky_Jackson_2008|Campbell, N. A., Reece, J. B., Urry, L. A., Cain, M. L., Wasserman, S. A., Minorsky, P. V. & Jackson, R. B2008Biology, 8th ed.  -xlvi + 1267 pp.  Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco.]]
      
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[http://www.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/index-j.html 広島大学] / [http://www.digital-museum.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/~museum/ デジタル自然史博物館] / [http://www.digital-museum.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/~museum/plant/ 植物] / [[生物の用語集(アルファベット順)|アルファベット順]] / [[生物の用語集(アルファベット順)_A|A]] | [[生物の用語集(仮名順)|仮名順]] にもどる
[http://www.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/index-j.html 広島大学] / [http://www.digital-museum.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/~museum/ デジタル自然史博物館] / [http://www.digital-museum.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/~museum/plant/ 植物] / [[生物の用語集(アルファベット順)|アルファベット順]] | [[生物の用語集(仮名順)|仮名順]] にもどる
      
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