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Phylogenetic analyses of liverworts using chloroplast ''rbcL'' and ''rps4'' sequences were performed with special reference to the enigmatic thalloid liverwort, ''Mizutania rieeardioides''.  The results showed that ''Mizutania'' is nested within leafy liverwort family Calypogeiaceae (subclass Jungermanniidae), thereby refuting the traditional interpretation that ''Mizutania'' is a member of the simple thalloid liverworts (subclass Metzgeriidae) related to Aneuraceae.  Male plants with three ranked bracts, which are newly discovered in this study, also show a close morphological affinity to those of leafy liverworts.  Parallel evolution of the flattened gametophyte seems to have occurred sporadically in the Jungermanniidae in association with adaptation to prostrate growth on the ground or on living leaves.  The unistratose thalloid features of ''Mizutania'' are interpreted as an extremely reduced or highly specialized form of a creeping leafy liverwort.  The rudimentary sexual branches which develop on the margins of the thallus are similar in many characteristics to those of Calypogeiaceae.  We reduce the monotypic family Mizutaniaceae to a synonym of Calypogeiaceae.
 
Phylogenetic analyses of liverworts using chloroplast ''rbcL'' and ''rps4'' sequences were performed with special reference to the enigmatic thalloid liverwort, ''Mizutania rieeardioides''.  The results showed that ''Mizutania'' is nested within leafy liverwort family Calypogeiaceae (subclass Jungermanniidae), thereby refuting the traditional interpretation that ''Mizutania'' is a member of the simple thalloid liverworts (subclass Metzgeriidae) related to Aneuraceae.  Male plants with three ranked bracts, which are newly discovered in this study, also show a close morphological affinity to those of leafy liverworts.  Parallel evolution of the flattened gametophyte seems to have occurred sporadically in the Jungermanniidae in association with adaptation to prostrate growth on the ground or on living leaves.  The unistratose thalloid features of ''Mizutania'' are interpreted as an extremely reduced or highly specialized form of a creeping leafy liverwort.  The rudimentary sexual branches which develop on the margins of the thallus are similar in many characteristics to those of Calypogeiaceae.  We reduce the monotypic family Mizutaniaceae to a synonym of Calypogeiaceae.
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== Pdf ==
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== Pdfs ==
* [[MEDIA:Masuzaki_et_al_2010_Taxon.pdf]]
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* [[MEDIA:Masuzaki_et_al_2010_Taxon_s1.pdf]]
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* [[MEDIA:Masuzaki_et_al_2010_Taxon_s2.pdf]]
    
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