Glossary of "Ecology (6th ed.)" by Krebs (2009)
- replacement of one kind of community by another kind; the progressive changes in vegetation and animal life that may culminate in the climax state.
Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)
- The gradual, sequential series of changes in the species composition of a community following a disturbance.
Glossary of "Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology (2nd ed.)" by Chapin et al. (2011)
- Directional change in ecosystem structure and functioning after disturbance.
- Krebs, C. J. 2009. Ecology, 6th ed. -xvi + 655 pp. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco.
- Sadava, D., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C. & Berenbaum, M. R. 2011. Life: The Science of Biology, 9th ed. -xliv + 1266 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
- Chapin, F. S., III, Matson, P. A. & Vitousek, P. M. 2011. Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology, 2nd ed. -xv + 529 pp. Springer, New York.