Glossary of "Cladistics (2nd ed.)" by Kitching et al. (1998)
- (1) The basal taxon of a cladogram on which all characters have been polarized. (2) The starting point or base of a cladogram.
Glossary of Plant Systematics (1st ed.) by Simpson (2006)
- A cylindrical organ of virtually all vascular plants, consisting of an apical meristem that gives rise to a protective root cap, a central endodermis-bounded vascular system, absorptive epidermal root hairs, and endogenously developed lateral roots; usually functioning in anchorage and absorption of water and minerals; initially derived from the radicle of the embryo and typically growing downward. (plant part)
Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)
- The organ responsible for anchoring the plant in the soil, absorbing water and minerals, and producing certain hormones. Some roots are storage organs.
- Kitching, I. J., Forey, P. L. Humphries, C. J. & Williams, D. M. 1998. Cladistics, 2nd ed.: the Theory and Practice of Parsimony Analysis. -xii + 228 pp. Oxford University Press, New York.
- Simpson, M. G. 2006. Plant Systematics. -xi + 590 pp. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford.
- Sadava, D., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C. & Berenbaum, M. R. 2011. Life: The Science of Biology, 9th ed. -xliv + 1266 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.