Glossary of "Cladistics (2nd ed.)" by Kitching et al. (1998)
- A multistate character of which the order has been determined. Transformation between any two adjacent states costs the same number of steps (usually one, see direction), but transformation between two non-adjacent states costs the sum of the steps betweentheir implied adjacent states. For example, in the ordered character, 0 <-> 1 <-> 2, the transformations 0 <-> 1 and 1 <-> 2 each cost the same number of steps but the transformation 0 <-> 2 costs twice as many (i.e. transformation proceeds as if via state 1). Wagner optimization uses ordered characters. Cf. unordered.
Glossary of Plant Systematics (1st ed.) by Simpson (2006)
- Referring to a transformation series in which the character states occur in a predetermined sequence.
- Kitching, I. J., Forey, P. L. Humphries, C. J. & Williams, D. M. 1998. Cladistics, 2nd ed.: the Theory and Practice of Parsimony Analysis. -xii + 228 pp. Oxford University Press, New York.
- Simpson, M. G. 2006. Plant Systematics. -xi + 590 pp. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford.