Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)
- Also known as model organisms, these include the small group of species that are the subject of extensive research. They are organisms that adapt well to laboratory situations and findings from experiments on them can apply across a broad range of species. Classic examples include white rats and the fruit fly Drosophila.
- Sadava, D., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C. & Berenbaum, M. R. 2011. Life: The Science of Biology, 9th ed. -xliv + 1266 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.