Glossary of "Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet (2nd ed.)" by Botkin & Keller (1998)
- Warmer air of a city than surrounding areas as a result of increased heat production and decreased rate of heat loss caused by the abundance of building and paving materials, which act as solar collectors.
- Botkin, D. B. & Keller, E. A. 1998. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet, 2nd ed. -xxxxii + 649 pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.