genetic drift (drift)
Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)
- Changes in gene frequencies from generation to generation as a result random (chance) processes.
Glossary of "Plant Systematics (1st ed.)" by Simpson (2006)
- Random genetic modification of a population or species, not the result of natural selection.
Glossary of "Evolution of Plants (2nd ed.)" by Willis & McElwain (2014)
- The random fluctuations of gene frequenceis in a population such that the genes of offspring are not a perfectly representative sampling of the parental genes.
Glossary of "Evolution (4th ed.)" by Futuyma & Kirkpatrick (2017)
Glossary of "Ancestors in Our Genome" by Harris (2015)
- random changes in the frequency of a DNA variant or allele in a population (i.e., how common it is in the population or species) as a result of random variation in individual reproduction.
Glossary of "Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet (2nd ed.)" by Botkin & Keller (1998)
- Changes in the frequency of a gene in a population as a result of chance rather than of mutation, selection, or migration.
- Botkin, D. B. & Keller, E. A. 1998. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet, 2nd ed. -xxxxii + 649 pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
- Futuyma, D. J. & Kirkpatrick, M. 2017. Evolution, 4th ed. -xviii + 602 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
- Harris, E. E. 2015. Ancestors in Our Genome: the New Science of Human Evolution. - xx + 226 pp. Oxford University Press, New York.
- Sadava, D., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C. & Berenbaum, M. R. 2011. Life: The Science of Biology, 9th ed. -xliv + 1266 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
- Simpson, M. G. 2006. Plant Systematics. -xi + 590 pp. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford.
- Willis, K. J. & McElwain, J. C. 2014. The Evolution of Plants, 2nd ed. -ix + 398 pp. Oxford University Press, Oxford.