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Glossary of "Ecology (6th ed.)" by Krebs (2009)

  • all the biotic and abiotic factors that actually affect an individual organism at any point in its life cycle.

Glossary of "Evolution (4th ed.)" by Futuyma & Kirkpatrick (2017)

  • Usually, the complex of external physical, chemical, and biotic factors that may affect a population, an organism, or the expression of an organism's genes; more generally, anything external to the object of interest (e.g., a gene, an organism, a population) that may influence its function or activity. Thus, other genes within an organism may be part of a gene's environment, or other individuals in a population may be part of an organism's environment.

Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)

  • Whatever surrounds and interacts with or otherwise affects a population, organism, or cell. May be external or internal.


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