Glossary of "Evolution (4th ed.)" by Futuyma & Kirkpatrick (2017)
- The doctrine that each species (or perhaps higher taxon) was created separately, essentially in its present form by a supernatural Creator.
- Futuyma, D. J. & Kirkpatrick, M. 2017. Evolution, 4th ed. -xviii + 602 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.