convergence (see also convergent evolution)
Glossary of "Cladistics (2nd ed.)" by Kitching et al. (1998)
- Two characters that pass the conjunction test of homology but fail both the similarity and congruence tests are termed convergent. Also known as homoiologies. See also homology, parallelism.
Glossary of Plant Systematics (1st ed.) by Simpson (2006)
- Homoplasy occurring by the independent evolution of a similar feature in two or more lineages. Syn: parallelism.
- Kitching, I. J., Forey, P. L. Humphries, C. J. & Williams, D. M. 1998. Cladistics, 2nd ed.: the Theory and Practice of Parsimony Analysis. -xii + 228 pp. Oxford University Press, New York.
- Simpson, M. G. 2006. Plant Systematics. -xi + 590 pp. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford.