Glossary of "Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet (2nd ed.)" by Botkin & Keller (1998)
- A hypothetical steady0state stage at the end of ecological succession. Traditionally, it was believed to be self-sustaining and also to have maximum organic matter, maximum storage of chemical elements, and maximum biological diversity. These ideas are now largely rejected among scientists doing basic ecological research, but they still have many adherents among practitioners.
- Botkin, D. B. & Keller, E. A. 1998. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet, 2nd ed. -xxxxii + 649 pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.