Glossary of "Cladistics (2nd ed.)" by Kitching et al. (1998)
- (1) Two characters that pass the similarity, conjunction and congruence tests are termed homologous. Also known as synapomorphy. (2) Character states that share modifications from another condition, e.g. wings of birds in relation to forelimbs of other tetrapods. See also convergence, parallelism, primary homology, secondary homology
Glossary of "Plant Systematics (3rd ed.)" by Judd et al. (2008)
- Similarity due to inheritance of a feature from a common ancestor.
- Judd, W. S., Campbell, C. S., Kellogg, E. A., Stevens, P. F., Donoghue, M. J. 2008. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, 3rd ed. -xv + 611 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
- Kitching, I. J., Forey, P. L. Humphries, C. J. & Williams, D. M. 1998. Cladistics, 2nd ed.: the Theory and Practice of Parsimony Analysis. -xii + 228 pp. Oxford University Press, New York.