Glossary of "Cladistics (2nd ed.)" by Kitching et al. (1998)
- (1) Two characters that pass the similarity, conjunction and congruence tests are termed homologous. Also known as synapomorphy.
- (2) Character states that share modifications from another condition, e.g. wings of birds in relation to forelimbs of other tetrapods. See also convergence, parallelism, primary homology, secondary homology
- Kitching, I. J., Forey, P. L. Humphries, C. J. & Williams, D. M. 1998. Cladistics, 2nd ed.: the Theory and Practice of Parsimony Analysis. -xii + 228 pp. Oxford University Press, New York.