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Glossary of "Ecology (6th ed.)" by Krebs (2009)

  • treeless area in arctic and alpine regions, varying from a bare area to various types of vegetation consisting of grasses, sedges, forbs, dwarf shrubs, lichens, and mosses.

Glossary of "The Evolution of Plants (2nd ed.)" by Willis & McElwain (2014)

  • A treeless circumpolar region predominantly found in the northern hemisphere north of the Arctic Circle.

Glossary of "Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet (2nd ed.)" by Botkin & Keller (1998)

  • The treeless land area in alpine and arctic areas characterized by plants of low stature and including bare areas without any plants and covered areas with lichens, mosses, grasses, sedges, and small flowering plants, including low shrubs.


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