提供: 広島大学デジタル自然史博物館 植物
Glossary of "Ecology (6th ed.)" by Krebs (2009)
- treeless area in arctic and alpine regions, varying from a bare area to various types of vegetation consisting of grasses, sedges, forbs, dwarf shrubs, lichens, and mosses.
Glossary of "The Evolution of Plants (2nd ed.)" by Willis & McElwain (2014)
- A treeless circumpolar region predominantly found in the northern hemisphere north of the Arctic Circle.
- Krebs, C. J. 2009. Ecology, 6th ed. -xvi + 655 pp. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco.
- Willis, K. J. & McElwain, J. C. 2014. The Evolution of Plants, 2nd ed. -ix + 398 pp. Oxford University Press, Oxford.