Glossary of "Cladistics (2nd ed.)" by Kitching et al. (1998)
- (1) A synapomorphy of a more inclusive hierarchical level than that being considered. (2) The occurrence in two or more taxa of a monophyletic group of a plesiomorphic character or character state; that is, one that has been inherited from an ancestor more distant than the most-recent common ancestor of the group. Paraphyletic groups result from mistaking symplesiomorphies for synapomorphies.
Glossary of Plant Systematics (1st ed.) by Simpson (2006)
- A shared, ancestral features among taxa, which may be used as a basis for grouping in a phenetic classification.
- Kitching, I. J., Forey, P. L. Humphries, C. J. & Williams, D. M. 1998. Cladistics, 2nd ed.: the Theory and Practice of Parsimony Analysis. -xii + 228 pp. Oxford University Press, New York.
- Simpson, M. G. 2006. Plant Systematics. -xi + 590 pp. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford.