Outgroup

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目次

outgroup (out-group)

  • 外群(日本語)
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Definition

Glossary of "Cladistics (2nd ed.)" by Kitching et al. (1998)

  • A taxon used in a cladistic analysis for comparative purposes, usually with respect to character polarity determination. Cf. ingroup.

Glossary of Plant Systematics (1st ed.) by Simpson (2006)

  • A taxon or group of taxa that is not a member of the ingroup.

Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)

  • In phylogenetics, a group of organisms used as a point of reference for comparison with the groups of primary interest (the ingroup).

"Phylogenetics" by Wiley (1981), p. 7

  • An out-group is a species or higher monophyletic taxon that is examined in the course of a phylogenetic study to determine which of two homologous characters may be inferred to be apomorphic. One or several out-groups may be examined for each decision. The most critical out-group comparisons involve the sister group of the taxon studied.

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