Glossary of "Cladistics (2nd ed.)" by Kitching et al. (1998)
- The first explicit procedure for constructing cladograms, in which the information contained in each character is considered independently. The different states of each character are first organized into transformation series and polarized, then the synapomorphies so revealed are used to construct the cladogram. See also constrained, two-step analysis.
- Kitching, I. J., Forey, P. L. Humphries, C. J. & Williams, D. M. 1998. Cladistics, 2nd ed.: the Theory and Practice of Parsimony Analysis. -xii + 228 pp. Oxford University Press, New York.