Glossary of "Ecology (6th ed.)" by Krebs (2009)
- biotic community and its abiotic environment; the whole Earth can be considered as one large ecosystem.
Glossary of "Plant Biology (1st ed.)" by Graham et al. (2003)
Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)
- The organisms of a particular habitat, such as pond or forest, together with the physical environment in which they live.
Glossary of "Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet (2nd ed.)" by Botkin & Keller (1998)
- An ecological community and its local, nonbiological community. An ecosystem is the minimum system that includes and sustains life. It must include at least an autotroph, a decomposer, a liquid medium, a source and sink of energy, and all the chemical elements required by the autotroph and the decomposer.
- Botkin, D. B. & Keller, E. A. 1998. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet, 2nd ed. -xxxxii + 649 pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
- Graham, L. E., Graham, J. M. & Wilcox, L. W. 2003. Plant Biology. -xxxv + 497 pp. Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River.
- Krebs, C. J. 2009. Ecology, 6th ed. -xvi + 655 pp. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco.
- Sadava, D., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C. & Berenbaum, M. R. 2011. Life: The Science of Biology, 9th ed. -xliv + 1266 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.