提供: 広島大学デジタル自然史博物館 植物
- (nc/nu) 撹乱，混乱，障害（日本語）
Glossary of Ecology (6th ed.) by Krebs (2009)
- any short-lived strong disruption to an ecological population or community, such as a fire, flood, windstorm, or earthquake.
Glossary of "Life (9th ed.)" by Sadava et al. (2011)
- A short-term event that disrupts populations, communities, or ecosystems by changing the environment.
- Krebs, C. J. 2009. Ecology, 6th ed. -xvi + 655 pp. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco.
- Sadava, D., Hillis, D. M., Heller, H. C. & Berenbaum, M. R. 2011. Life: The Science of Biology, 9th ed. -xliv + 1266 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.