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Glossary of "Cladistics (2nd ed.)" by Kitching et al. (1998)
- A branching diagram specifying hierarchical relationships among taxa based upon homologies (synapomorphies). A cladogram includes no connotation of ancestry and has no implied time axis. Cf. phylogenetic tree.
Glossary of "Plant Systematics (1st ed.)" by Simpson (2006)
- A branching diagram that conceptually represents the best estimate of phylogeny. Syn: phylogenetic tree.
Glossary of "Evolution (4th ed.)" by Futuyma & Kirkpatrick (2017)
- A branching diagram depicting relationships among taxa; i.e., an estimated history of the relative sequence in which they have evolved from common ancestors.
Glossary of "Molecular Systematics (2nd ed.)" by Hillis et al. (1996)
- A tree that depicts inferred historical branching relationships among entities. Unless otherwise stated, the depicted branch lengths in a cladogram are arbitrary; only the branching order is significant. See phylogram.
- Futuyma, D. J. & Kirkpatrick, M. 2017. Evolution, 4th ed. -xviii + 602 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
- Hillis, D. M., Moritz, C. & Mable, B. K. 1996. Molecular Systematics, 2nd ed. -xvi + 655 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland.
- Kitching, I. J., Forey, P. L. Humphries, C. J. & Williams, D. M. 1998. Cladistics, 2nd ed.: the Theory and Practice of Parsimony Analysis. -xii + 228 pp. Oxford University Press, New York.
- Simpson, M. G. 2006. Plant Systematics. -xi + 590 pp. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford.