Glossary of "Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet (2nd ed.)" by Botkin & Keller (1998)
- A situation where ecological succession does not occur. Characteristic of harsh environments such as deserts. In this case, one species may replace another, or an individual of the first species may replace it, and no overall general temporal pattern is established.
- Botkin, D. B. & Keller, E. A. 1998. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet, 2nd ed. -xxxxii + 649 pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.